• 2019-10
  • 2019-11
  • 2020-03
  • 2020-07
  • 2020-08
  • CAY10683 br The calculated ILCR revealed potential health ri


    The calculated ILCR revealed potential health risks from the ex-posure to benzene through inhalation at all areas, whilst ILCR values at all traffic sites were not recommendable. The allocation of the esti-mated ILCR at the 9 atmospheric regimes showed that clusters with increased benzene levels commonly accounted for large fractions of the total risk however in some cases the impact of highly polluted clusters on ILCR was reduced, due to the lack of appearance of these circulation types.
    According to the findings of this study meteorology and local emissions are key parameters which are combined to determine ben-zene levels and corresponding ILCR in Europe. The findings of this study can be used by the authorities across Europe in order to create a decision-making system, which will advise the CAY10683 of specific regions and especially the most sensitive cohorts of the population to avoid major source areas of benzene (e.g. traffic arteries, chemical in-dustries etc), when the atmospheric circulation favors the increment of its concentration. In addition, the same decision-making system must have the jurisdiction to instruct the reduction of benzene emissions under critical meteorological conditions. As a closure, we would like to underline the fact that the time series of the used data cover the years 2008–2012, thus further research with more recent observations of carcinogenic compounds could enhance the main conclusions of our study concerning the influence of atmospheric conditions on ILCR.
    Conflicts of interest
    K. Dimitriou, P. Kassomenos
    Declaration of interests
    The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influ-ence the work reported in this paper.
    The authors would like to recognize the contribution of the European Environment Agency (EEA), for the provision of air pollution data through the AirBase website. In addition we would like to thank the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA, for the provision of NCEP Reanalysis data from their Web site at https://www.esrl.noaa. gov/psd/.
    Appendix A. Supplementary data
    This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
    Dafis, S., Lolis, C.J., Houssos, E.E., Bartzokas, A., 2015. The atmospheric circulation characteristics favouring snowfall in an area with complex relief in Northwestern Greece. Int. J. Climatol. 36 (10), 3561–3577. Dimitriou, K., Kassomenos, P., 2018. The influence of specific atmospheric circulation types on PM10-bound benzo(a)pyrene inhalation related lung cancer risk in Barcelona, Spain. Environ. Int. 112, 107–114.
    Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament CAY10683 and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe.
    Fiebelkorn, S., Meredith, C., 2018. Estimation of the leukemia risk in human populations exposed to benzene from tobacco smoke using epidemiological data. Risk Anal. 38,  Atmospheric Environment 201 (2019) 158–165
    Marc, M., Bielawska, M., Simeonov, V., Namieśnik, J., Zabiegała, B., 2016. The effect of anthropogenic activity on BTEX, NO2, SO2, and CO concentrations in urban air of the spa city of Sopot and medium-industrialized city of Tczew located in North Poland. Environ. Res. 147, 513–524.
    Marc, M., Bielawska, M., Wardencki, W., Namieśnik, J., Zabiegała, B., 2015. The influ-ence of meteorological conditions and anthropogenic activities on the seasonal fluctuations of BTEX in the urban air of the Hanseatic city of Gdansk, Poland. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 22 (15), 11940–11954.
    Measurements of benzene and formaldehyde in a medium sized urban environment.
    Indoor/outdoor health risk implications on special population groups. Environ.
    Schiavon, M., Redivo, M., Antonacci, G., Rada, E.C., Ragazzi, M., Zardi, D., Giovannini, L., 2015. Assessing the air quality impact of nitrogen oxides and benzene from road traffic and domestic heating and the associated cancer risk in an urban area of Verona (Italy). Atmos. Environ. 120, 234–243.
    US EPA (US Environmental protection Agency), 1998. Integrated Risk Information System - Benzene. US EPA (US Environmental protection Agency), 2005. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. 2005. EPA/630/P-03/001F. Risk Assessment Forum. U. S. Environmental protection Agency, Washington, DC. Vesilind, P.A., Morgan, S.M., Heine, L.G., 2010. Introduction to Environmental Engineering, third ed. Cengage Learning.
    Waked, A., Sauvage, S., Borbon, A., Gauduin, J., Pallares, C., Vagnot, M.-P., Léonardis, T., Locoge, N., 2016. Multi-year levels and trends of non-methane hydrocarbon con-centrations observed in ambient air in France. Atmos. Environ. 141, 263–275.