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  • br CoverageCount FindCoverage v G T finding coverage of


    8. CoverageCount = FindCoverage(v, G, T) // finding coverage of v in graph G
    9. Add to Result
    11. Sort Result by CoverageCount descending
    Algorithm 2. The iMaxDriverN algorithm
    Input: A non-weighted directed graph of Dorsomorphin and a list of threshold value for each gene ID
    Output: Result: A list of genes sorted by their coverage
    1. Result ← an empty set of with initially CoverageCount = 0
    2. AllNodes all nodes of G
    8. IncomeEdges income edges of
    9. Sum sum of edge weights of IncomeEdges
    10. for each edge in IncomeEdges:
    15. CoverageCount = FindCoverage(v, G, T) // finding coverage of v in graph G
    20. Sort Result by CoverageCount descending
    Algorithm 3. core algorithm (FindCoverage)
    Input: as a directed and weighted graph of genes and list of threshold values for each gene
    ID and as a selected initial node
    Output: ActiveCount: Number of genes activated by the selected initial node
    1. ActiveNodes
    3. While (Count (ActiveNodes) > ActiveCount )
    4. NewActiveNodes empty set
    5. ActiveCount Count(ActiveNodes)
    6. InactiveNodes (AllNodes – ActiveNodes)
    7. for each node in InactiveNodes:
    8. IncomeWeights sum of weights of all edges from ActiveNodes to
    10. NewActiveNodes NewActiveNodes
    13. ActiveNodes ActiveNodes NewActiveNodes
    Conflicts of interest
    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Environmental Research
    journal homepage:
    Cancer incidence and mortality associated with non-occupational and low T dose exposure to Libby vermiculite in Minnesota☆
    Tess Konen, Jean E. Johnson, Paula Lindgren, Allan Williams
    Libby asbestos
    Low dose
    Cancer incidence
    Community exposure 
    Background: A vermiculite processing plant in a Minneapolis, Minnesota neighborhood utilized asbestos-con-taining ore from Libby, Montana from the late 1930's until 1989. Multiple pathways of exposure to Libby as-bestos were characterized in a cohort of over 6000 plant workers and residents living near the plant. Objective: We conducted a cohort linkage study to assess the impact of cumulative low dose exposure and the role of occupational history on asbestos-related mortality and cancer morbidity among cohort members residing near a vermiculite plant. Methods: Cohort members alive in 1988 (n = 5848) were linked to the Minnesota Cancer Surveillance System to identify incident cases of mesothelioma, lung cancer, and all-cancer diagnosed from 1988 to 2010. Proportional incidence ratios (PIRs) were calculated for mesothelioma and lung cancer. Vital status and cause of death were ascertained from Minnesota vital records and the National Death Index (1988–2011). Mortality rates of the cohort (2001–2011) for asbestos-related outcomes were compared to the Minnesota population to estimate standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and stratified by gender, exposure, and occupational history categories. Results: We identified seven cases of mesothelioma, with elevated incidence only in females (PIR = 11.76, 95% CI: 3.17, 30.12). Lung cancer was elevated in both genders: PIR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.0) in males and 1.62 (95% CI: 1.21, 2.12) in females. We found elevated mortality from COPD, lung cancer, and mesothelioma among females (SMR for mesothelioma in females = 18.97, CI: 3.91, 55.45), among the 546 deaths identified. All four deaths from mesothelioma occurred in the > 75th percentile of exposure (> 0.0156 fiber/cc x months). The SMR for lung cancer and all respiratory cancer was elevated even after controlling for occupation.
    Conclusions: Community exposure to Libby amphibole asbestos from a vermiculite processing plant is associated with increased risk of COPD, lung cancer and mesothelioma incidence and mortality, most notably among fe-males, and is likely to remain a public health issue for years to come.
    1. Introduction
    From about 1938 to 1989, Western Minerals/W.R. Grace (WM/ WRG) facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota, received and processed over 138,000 tons of milled vermiculite ore from a mine in Libby, Montana that was contaminated with amphibole asbestos of the actinolite-tre-molite-winchite-richterite mineral series (ATSDR, 2008; Price, 2008). In addition to producing insulation, fireproofing, and other products, the vermiculite exfoliation process generated a waste rock that was later found to contain up to 10% fibrous amphibole asbestos (Minnesota Department of Health, 2001). The waste material was offered freely to the surrounding residential community for their use as fill materials in yards, driveways, and gardens (Minnesota Department of Health,